As supercapacitors are a new type of product, different updates and adjustments have been made in terms of structure, materials, and performance. According to different contents, the methods of classifying supercapacitors are different. At present, the classification of supercapacitors generally refers to the principle of capacitors and electrolytes. Each type of supercapacitor can be divided into different categories.
According to different working principles of supercapacitor, supercapacitors are mainly divided into two categories: double-layer capacitor and pseudocapacitive supercapacitor.
(1) Double-layer capacitors have been updated on the manufacturing materials, such as: activated carbon electrode materials, combined with high specific surface area activated carbon materials to make electrodes; carbon aerogel electrode materials, combined with precursor materials to prepare gel and then carbonized and activated as an electrode.
(2) Pseudocapacitance supercapacitors generally use metal oxide electrode materials and polymer electrode materials.
Electrolyte is a compound that has conductive properties after being dissolved in an aqueous solution. Electrolytes in supercapacitors include: water-based electrolyte and organic electrolyte.
(1) Water-based electrolytes are more common. Electrolytes are acidic, alkaline, and neutral. The composition of electrolytes with different characteristics is also different.
(2) For organic electrolytes, LiClO4-based lithium salts and teABF4-based quaternary ammonium salts are generally selected as electrolytes. Sometimes, corresponding solvents can be added as needed, such as: PC, ACN, GBL, THL, which have significantly improved the performance of supercapacitors.
According to the electrolyte classification method of supercapacitors, the detailed classification can also be combined with the specific state of the electrolyte. For example, according to the solid and liquid forms of the electrolyte, it can be divided into solid electrolyte supercapacitors and liquid electrolyte supercapacitors.
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