Supercapacitors are power electronic components developed in the 1970s and 1980s that use polarized electrolytes to store energy. It is different from the traditional chemical power supply. It is a power supply with special performance between traditional capacitors and batteries.
1. The structure of the ultra super capacitor
In the structure of supercapacitors, porous electrodes generally use activated carbon powder, activated carbon, activated carbon fiber, etc. The electrolyte uses an organic electrolyte such as propylene carbonate or titanium tetrachloride. Porous activated carbon has a large surface area and absorbs charges in the electrolyte, which can store a large amount of electrostatic charge. Compared with batteries, although the energy density of supercapacitors is smaller, this method of storing energy can replace the shortcomings of traditional batteries in energy storage, and can also be applied on occasions that require short-term high peak currents.
2. Working principle of super capacitor
Super capacitors are capacitors that use the principle of an electric double layer.
When an external voltage is applied to the two plates of the super capacitor, the positive electrode and the negative electrode store charges of different polarities, which is the same as the principle of ordinary capacitors. The electric charge movement of the supercapacitor generates an electric field on the bipolar plate. Due to the electric field force, an opposite electric field is formed at the interface between the electrode and the electrolyte to balance the internal electric field of the electrolyte. The positive and negative charges are on the contact surface with a short gap between two different polarities. The charge distribution layer is called an electric double layer and has a very large capacitance.
When the redox electrode potential of the electrolyte is higher than the potential between the two plates, the electrolyte will not be separated from the charge on the electrolyte interface, and the supercapacitor is in a normal working state. If the redox electrode potential of the electrolyte is lower than the voltage across the capacitor, the electrolyte will decompose the charge at the interface, which will be an abnormal state. If the charge stored on the positive and negative plates is discharged through an external circuit, the amount of charge at the electrolyte interface of the supercapacitor gradually decreases.
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