Supercapacitor is an electrochemical element that uses polarized electrolyte to store energy. It can be used as a power source with special performance between traditional capacitors and batteries. The energy storage process is reversible and can be charged and discharged repeatedly. Hundreds of thousands of times. Its outstanding advantages are high power density, short charge and discharge time, long cycle life, and wide operating temperature range. It is the largest electric double layer capacitor in the world that has been put into mass production.
When choosing the size of a capacitor, many factors need to be considered. Among them, the highest working voltage, working cut-off voltage, average discharge current, discharge time, etc. are several factors that need to be especially considered.
Supercapacitors have a recommended operating voltage or optimal operating voltage. This value is determined based on the maximum operating time of the capacitor at the highest set temperature. If the applied voltage is higher than the recommended voltage, the life of the capacitor will be shortened. If the overvoltage is longer, the electrolyte inside the capacitor will decompose to form gas. When the pressure of the gas gradually increases, the safety hole of the capacitor will be broken or pierced. Short-term overvoltage is tolerable to the capacitor.
Super capacitors use a symmetrical electrode design, that is, they have a similar structure. When the capacitor is assembled for the first time, each electrode can be used as a positive electrode or a negative electrode. Once the capacitor is fully charged from 100% for the first time, the capacitor will become polarized. There is one on the outer shell of each super capacitor. The sign or mark of the negative pole. Although they can be short-circuited to reduce the voltage to zero volts, the electrodes still retain a small part of the charge, and it is not recommended to change the polarity at this time. The longer the capacitors are charged in one direction, the stronger their polarity will become. If a capacitor changes polarity after being charged in one direction for a long time, the life of the capacitor will be shortened.
3. Ambient temperature
The normal operating temperature of supercapacitors is -40℃～70℃. The combination of temperature and voltage is an important factor affecting the life of supercapacitors. Under normal circumstances, the life of a super capacitor will be reduced by 30% to 50% every time the temperature rises by 10°C. If the supercapacitor is used under the condition of lower than room temperature, the supercapacitor can work higher than the specified voltage without accelerating the internal degradation of the supercapacitor and affecting the life of the supercapacitor.
4. Disge characteristics
When the super capacitor is discharged, it will discharge according to a slope curve. After an application has clarified the capacitance and internal resistance requirements of the capacitor, the most important thing is to understand the impact of resistance and capacitance on the discharge characteristics. In pulse applications, resistance is the most important factor, and in small current applications, capacity is an important factor.
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